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With so many options available today and so many freelancers and agencies it may be a little difficult when it comes to deciding who to go with. Here are a few advantages of working with individual freelancers:

  1. Usually Freelancers will cost less than hiring an agency.
  2. When starting with a freelancer you can usually be guaranteed that they can start on your project very soon.
  3. Freelancers usually have a great creative insight since they have worked on multiple projects.

Now, here are a few advantages of working with an agency:

  1. Agencies usually have a team which means more eyes on the final product.
  2. Agencies probably have a big team so you can be sure that your website will have much love.
  3. Agencies will nail down most of the details before starting, which may result in a better end-product.

So, what would be the best way to get a high-quality project done in a timely manner without breaking your bank?

Well… Typically that is going to happen with a freelancer. There may be some agencies that will not cost an arm and a leg, but they may not deliver the best end product.

The best way to go about deciding who to choose is to have a meeting with the person/agency. There level of energy will usually tell you if they are motivated and excited to get your project up and running well.


Nike Case Study

nike-logoI. Summary of case facts

Nike is one of the leading athletic footwear companies. Nike has had a dramatic increase in revenue in the last two decades. In 1985 the U.S. spent $5 billion dollars on Nike apparel and in 2001 that increased to $13 billion.

Nike decided to do some outsourcing for their labor. This decision caused much controversy. 1994 a lot of criticism was pointed at Nike, Inc. Many criticisms came from publications such as: The New Republic, Rolling Stones, The New York Time, and The Economist. The criticisms involved Nikes outsourcing for labor. The critics stated that Nike was responsible for where there products were created. The countries/factories paid low wages, had poor working conditions, and had young child laborers

They decided they needed to change the way they do business. In 1992 Nike created a Code of Conduct, which set forth many rules to cleaning up the way their outsourcing had been done. Nike hired employees to inspect/check on the factories that were doing business with Nike in-order to assure a good work environment. Nike has also contributed too many non-profit organizations.

Nike is involved in the United Nations Global Compact, founders of the Global Alliance for Workers and Communities, and active in the Fair Labor Association. Nike knew many changes had to be made in order to keep a good image for their company and increase revenue.

II. Statement of problem

Nike wanted to increase their revenue by outsourcing the labor of their products. By outsourcing Nike would not have to pay as much to have their products created. Other countries outside the U.S. do not charge/pay as much for labor. Nike moved factories around from a lot of countries trying to get the best profit for their production.

Nike started opening up factories in countries like Indonesia, Pakistan, and Vietnam. This was a bad idea because Indonesia paid workers extremely low wages, not enough for people to live on. Pakistan does not have an age limit where children can work; so many children in Pakistan were making Nike apparel. In addition Vietnam had very poor work conditions.

Many publications found out about these labor acts and started making people aware of how Nike is doing business. Nike was criticized for how they produce their products. This was giving Nike a bad image to the public.

III. Alternative Solution

Nike was telling these critics that they were not responsible for how the products were created, because they were simply managers and marketing. This was not a very productive solution.

In 1992 Nike had created a Code of Conduct for all the factories that produced their product. This was a start in monitoring how labor and production was done; however, that was not enough because Nike also needed to hire employees to monitor the factories and make sure the Code of Conduct was enforced. Then to cover up any misdeeds on their part they decided to involve themselves in many non-profit organizations which benefited labor laws.

IV. Recommendation

I think Nike did very well on making sure that their outsourcing was done in a civilized manner. Though, I think the whole non-profit organization involvement is kind of like a big gesture stating, “Hey look at us, we’re good now. We want everyone working in a civil and healthy environment!” I think that gesture is kind of a hypocritical statement. All in all I do think that this may have saved them from many companies/organizations switching to an alternate athletic apparel brand.

I’m not to sure if this had been done, but I think it would have been very appropriate for Nike representative to give a public speech. Publicly announce that they have changed the way they are doing business and possibly apologize for any misconstrued image or false representation to the consumer.

Colorado Ski-Resort Case Study

ski-resortI. Summary of case facts

The chief financial officer of ‘Colorado Ski Resort’ is no longer with the company. A page layout of the financial data was supplied. Financial data needs to be assessed to determine if finance areas need further attention and investigation.

II. Statement of problem

My predecessor is no longer hired with the company ‘Colorado Ski Resort’. He left behind a list of financial information just before he left. A study/report is required to determine what financial areas need further attention and investigation.

I will list each financial expense category for the company and explain my thoughts. The categories are ski operations, ski school, ski rental, ski merchandise, food & beverages, property management, general & administrative,  and marketing. The categories with an ‘*’ at the beginning are the categories that may need more attention and investigation.

  1. Ski Operations – There are a couple months where money is lost due to high expenses; however the profitable months weigh out the high expense months. The ski operations finances seem to be beneficial.
  2. *Ski School – On the financial spreadsheet provided I see that there are more months where money is lost than money is gained.
  3. Ski Rental – The ski rental is the most profitable financial investment. Ski Rental finances seem to be beneficial.
  4. *Ski Merchandise – The ski merchandise investment is one of the least profitable category.
  5. *Food & Beverages – Food and beverages investment are showing an overall loss of profit. Changes may need to be done to bring the food and beverages investment from a negative profit to a positive profit.
  6. Property Management – The property management is not a substantial profitable investment; however, there is usually a positive profit apposed to a negative profit.
  7. General & Administrative – This is an expense for employees’ salary and other administrative issues. The General & Administrative expense looks ok.
  8. Marketing – Marketing is an expense for company advertising and publicity. The Marketing expense looks good.

III. Alternative Solution

The following is a list of alternate solutions/suggestions to be applied to the financial investments that may need attention and investigation.

Ski SchoolSince most months for the ski school investment are negative profit, I would suggest either decreasing expenses a little or slightly increasing the price for the ski school.

Ski Merchandise – Since this is one of the least profitable investments, I have two suggestions for bringing overall revenue up. One would be the obvious to increase the prices of the merchandise. The second may be to determine if keeping the ski merchandise investment open is profitable or non profitable. Find out how much it costs to keep the merchandise stocked and the time or salary paid to the people in the merchandise shop. Find out those costs and compare them to the little profit we are getting from this investment. If the profit is positive than continue with the ski merchandise investment. If the profit is negative than consider getting rid of the ski merchandise investment.

Food & Beverages – The food and beverages issue is simple. I would suggest the same idea as I did with the ski school. To make this investment profitable we either need to decrease expenses or increase prices.

IV. Recommendation

If the prices are raised to high with any of the investments, it may drive customers away. I would check the books and see how much of a difference it would make by increasing prices to a non-substantial amount. The over-all revenue of the company is doing well, so dramatic changes may not need to be made.

Another recommendation to increase the overall revenue of the resort is to offer special packages to the customers. Say a package where customers can buy a pass to spend a planned day at the resort. This package would include ski rental, coupon for food & beverages, and a ticket for a class at the ski school.

Coca-Cola Case Study

Coca-Cola_logoI. Summary of case facts

Coca-Cola had made a type of bottled water called Kinley. During production of the bottled water the Pollution Monitoring Laboratory (PML) performed some tests on the product. In these tests the PML found that the bottled water revealed evidence of pesticide residue. This information had gotten to the public, so Coca-Cola decided to stop production of the product and eventually this incident was forgotten.

Due to Coca-Cola saving most of their consumers by quickly removing the problem product many other suspicions grew and brought later sanitation tests. A later test showed that Coca-Cola and Pepsi products in India contained residue of pesticides.

Coca-Cola and Pepsi called these accusations “baseless”. Pepsi had done their own test on their products and found no traces of pesticide residue. Coca Cola and Pepsi had threatened legal action and denied the validity of the claim. Word about the pesticides had spread to many consumers in India, and they believed that the findings were true and agreed with parliament’s move to ban the sale of Soft Drinks

II. Statement of problem

Coca-Cola India got some bad publicity from the Center for Science and Environment (CSE) stating: “12 major cold drink brands sold in and around Delhi contain a deadly cocktail of pesticide residues”. The pesticide residue was 30-36 times higher than global standards and was found in three samples of twelve PepsiCo and Coca-Cola brands. The pesticides include lindane, DDT, malathion, and chlorpyrifos. These four pesticides have been known to cause cancer, damage to the nervous and reproductive systems, birth defects, and severe disruption of the immune system.

This is very bad for Coca-Cola, because the amount of people consuming Coca-Cola in India was dramatically increasing each year. Now, due to this dilemma there may be a substantial decrease in the amount of bottles Coca-Cola will make the following years to come.

Many allegations have been made about Coca-Cola having separate standards from western countries and India. The allegations imply that there are no standards in India. If people believe that Coca-Cola is toxic in India then consumers will not be purchasing the product.

III. Alternative Solution

There are a couple alternative solutions that Coca-Cola can make to get through this situation. One solution they could try would be to do the same thing they had done when there had been pesticide residue in their bottled water. That solution was to do nothing and let it ride out until people had forgotten. This is probably not a very smart solution to go with.

Another solution would be to do numerous tests at the factory where the supposed contaminated sodas were found. If after doing numerous tests and no pesticides are found then they may want to take legal action against the business that made the false accusations. Also they may want to make a public announcement that the accusations previously made were false, and the company that made the false accusations had been sued.

One solution may be to do a checkup on a couple factories and the factory where the contaminated sodas were found. Then explain to the consumers that the accusations were false.

If Coca-Cola had done their own tests and found a couple traces of pesticide residue they would need to clean up the factories and possibly set a standard. Then they would have to do a recall on many products surrounding the area. Finally they would need to let the consumers know the truth and explain the new regulations or standards that have been set. This may not be the best solution due to a lot of consumers no longer buying coke; however, it would be an honest solution.

IV. Recommendation

I would recommend that Coca-Cola India and Coca-Cola US come together and figure out the best solution. I think they should do numerous tests to several factories around the area where the contaminated sodas came from.

If the tests show up false, where there are no contaminated sodas, I would recommend taking legal action to the business that made the false accusations. Then they should let the consumers know what had been done on this Issue. Finally they could use the money they got from suing the business towards hiring people to do routine checkups at the factories. This will insure consumer satisfactory.

If the tests show up true, of having pesticide residue, I would recommend Coca-Cola fold and do a massive recall of products. Coca-Cola would then need to set a higher standard and regulations for the sanitation of the factories. Finally they would need to let the consumers know that they guarantee their product is safe. They should not mention whether the pesticide residue was true or false, but they should let the consumers know that they had increased the standards and regulations in their factories to secure consumer loyalty.

Anthropology – Migration

explosm-evolution-t-shirtHow did the old world monkeys migrate from to other parts of the country after the continental drift?

The continental drift brought many questions to how the old world monkeys migrated across the South Atlantic. One of the best explained answers to this question is that they crossed by island hopping. The water spans between the islands was still a substantial span, but with water drifts they may have been able to raft from island to island on floating mats of vegetation.

Another scenario that could have happened was that while the countries were split up there were old world monkeys on both sides of the continents. So after the continental drift they were able to reproduce and brought new world monkeys to all other continents.

Another two possible scenarios according to Paul R. Mays in an article titled History of Man he says “African anthropoids crossed the Atlantic somehow, and radiated into new habitats upon reaching South America.” Followed by another scenario that suggests, “North American primate forms gave rise to the current New World species.”

I believe the best scenario would be the first one I explained, that African anthropoids emerged earlier than fossils suggest, and they rafted across the Atlantic when the gap was much smaller.

Advantages of Certain Characteristics – Stereoscopic Vision

peru13The stereoscopic vision is very crucial when it comes to survival and lifestyle with animals. Many primates such as Lemurs, tree Shrews, and Dinosaurs, as well as even humans, all have different stereoscopic visions to better adapt them to their environment.

A tree shrew has very small overlap of vision, since the tree shrew does not need to climb and run, because they can always hide, than their vision is not required to have great overlap to survive.

The overlap is much greater in Lemurs. Lemurs are rather small primates, so when it comes to getting food to survive, they do not need to great of a stereoscopic vision but yet they need decent overlap.

Dinosaurs for instance have good stereoscopic vision, most dinosaurs have eyes located on the sides. This comes very important to dinosaurs for survival. When hunting for food, they are able to get more of a wider range of vision, and the same goes for when they need to fight off predators.

Humans, as well as the monkey family, have a much greater overlap of stereoscopic vision. Humans are able to rotate their head and body very well which allows their range of vision to be great. Humans and monkeys need a good stereoscopic vision so that they can survive.

Anthropology 101 Key Terms

3459_main_image_1244188208Paleoanthropology – the study of fossil and cultural remains and other evidence of humans’ extinct ancestors.

Physical anthropologists – scientists who work in the field of human evolution and human variability.

Biological anthropologists – scientists who study human biology and the biology of past and present human populations, human genetics and variability, adaptation including growth, and evolutionary change.

Deep time – the theory that the earth is billions of years old and thus has a long history of development and change.

Antediluvian – relating to a time that preceded the flood described in Genesis.

Paleolithic – relating to the Old Stone Age; the earliest stage of stone tool making, beginning about 2.5 million years ago

Neolithic-   relating to the New Stone Age; a late stage of stone tool making that began about 10,000 years ago.

Extinction – the loss of a species when all its members die as a result of competition or climatic change.

Catastrophism – Georges Cuvier’s theory that vast floods and other disasters wiped out ancient life forms again and again throughout the earth’s history.

Uniformitarianism – the belief that the steady changes in the earth’s crust that we see today were preceded by similar slow changes throughout geological time.

Evolution – changes in the forms of organic life that have occurred throughout time since life first arose on earth.

Natural selection – the principal mechanism of Darwinian evolutionary change, by which the individuals best adapted to the environment contribute more offspring to succeeding generations that others do. As more of such individuals’ characteristics are incorporated into the gene pool, the characteristics of the population evolve.

Superfecundity – the universal tendency to produce more offspring than required to maintain a population of constant size; more than can possibly survive.

Cryptic – serving to camouflage, as when coloration allows an animal to blend into its background.

Stratigraphy – the sequence of geologic strata, or layers, formed by materials deposited by water or wind; also, the study of this sequence.

Relative dating – estimating the age of geologic deposits (and the fossils in them) by determining their stratigraphic level in relation to other deposits whose relative or absolute age is known. (Compare with absolute dating.)

Faunal correlation – dating a site by the similarity of its animal fossils to those of another site that may carry a reliable absolute date.

Fossilization – the transformation of bones that occurs when they are buried under suitable circumstances. Certain mineral elements are dissolved and replaced by others. The form of the bone is effectively preserved.

Absolute dating – determining the actual age of geologic deposits (and the fossils in them) by examining the chemical composition of rock fragments containing radioactive substances that decay at known rates. Also known as chronometric dating. (Compare with relative dating.)

Chronometric dating – an alternative term for absolute dating.

Half-life – the time taken for half of any quantity of a radioactive element to decay to its fission products.

Potassium-argon dating – chronometric dating in which age is determined by measurement of the decay of radioactive potassium 40.

Tuff – a rocklike substance formed from volcanic ash.

Carbon 14 dating – a method of dating archaeological remains based on the radioactive decay of the element carbon 14 into nitrogen.

Fission-track method – method of dating rocks from tracks left by the spontaneous splitting of uranium 238 atoms.

Thermoluminescence – method of dating pottery and stone tools by heating them to release trapped electrons; the electrons produce measurable light.

Optically stimulated luminescence – method of dating sediments by stimulating them with intense light; such stimulation causes the sediments to release trapped electrons and thus measurable light.

Paleomagnetism – magnetism originally generated by the earth’s magnetic field and preserved in rock. Past fluctuations in the intensity and direction of this field allow correlation between strata, a form of relative dating that can be used for absolute dating because the historic pattern of magnetic fluctuations and reversals is known and dated.